News and Information - Scroll Down to see other publications

What’s In the Water We Drink?.  Washington’s tap water, most of which comes from the Potomac River, meets or exceeds federal water-quality standards. But new pollutants have emerged that are not removed by current water-purification technology. Evidence suggests that the same contaminants that caused massive fish kills and deformities in recent years are linked to increases in obesity, diabetes, autism, cancer, and other disorders—and that medications and products we use every day might contribute to the problem.  http://www.washingtonian.com/articles/people/whats-in-the-water-we-drink-2/

Steroid hormone runoff from agricultural test plots applied with municipal biosolids.  Yang, Y.-Y.; Gray, J. L.; Furlong, E. T.; Davis, J. G.; ReVello, R. C.; Borch, T.,  Environ. Sci. Technol. 2012, ASAP Download here(2.7 MB)       Supplemental Info

Reuse of Municipal Wastewater Has Significant Potential to Augment Future U.S. Drinking Water Supplies (January 10, 2012) - The National Research Council of the National Academies has released a report which finds that "... with recent advances in technology and design, treating municipal wastewater and reusing it for drinking water, irrigation, industry, and other applications could significantly increase the nation's total available water resources, particularly in coastal areas facing water shortages ... Moreover, new analyses suggest that the possible health risks of exposure to chemical contaminants and disease-causing microbes from wastewater reuse do not exceed, and in some cases may be significantly lower than, the risks of existing water supplies ... The report examines a wide range of reuse applications ... [and] outlines wastewater treatment technologies for mitigating chemical and microbial contaminants, including both engineered and natural treatment systems ... Also, it lists 14 areas of research to help guide the country on how to apply water reuse appropriately ..." Web site: The January 10, 2012 National Academies News Release is posted at
http://www8.nationalacademies.org/onpinews/newsitem.aspx?RecordID=13303
The National Academies report is available at     http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=13303
Key Findings from the report are posted at     http://dels.nas.edu/Report/water-reuse/13303

Bisphenol A (BPA), a Substance Used in some Food Packaging - The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) intends to review "... two reports on Bisphenol A following their recent publication by the French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety (Anses) ... [and] will analyse the reports in light of its previous risk assessment and consider the underlying reasons for any different views regarding the potential health effects of Bisphenol A. The final outcome of this work will be provided to the European Commission by the end of November 2011 ..." - EFSA has a "... specific contract with the University of Parma for the on-going screening and monitoring of the scientific literature on Bisphenol A ..." Document Title: The title of the October 19, 2011 EFSA News Story is "EFSA to analyse new Bisphenol A reports".  Organization: European Food Safety Authority.  Source: October 19, 2011 EFSA News Story.  Web site: The October 19, 2011 EFSA News Story is posted at http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/press/news/111019.htm .  The EFSA mandate, titled "ANSES reports on Bisphenol A (M-2011-0322)", is posted at http://registerofquestions.efsa.europa.eu/roqFrontend/mandateLoader?mandate=M-2011-0322 .  The EFSA Scientific Opinion on Bisphenol A which was adopted on September 23, 2010 is posted at http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/efsajournal/pub/1829.htm

Observations Of Brachygnathia Superior In Wild Ruminants In Western Montana.  J.A. Hoy1, G.T. Haas2, R.D. Hoy1 & P. Hallock3.  Wildl. Biol. Pract., 2011 December 7(2): doi:10.2461/wbp.2011.7.13.  Since spring of 1995 developmental malformations have been observed on many species of vertebrates. The most frequently observed of a range of skeletal anomalies is brachygnathia superior, also called mandibular prognathia, resulting from underdevelopment in length and width of the premaxillary bone forward of the upper premolars on ruminant species. To quantify these observations, facial anatomy was examined for bone and dental malformations on 1061 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) that were accident-killed or died of natural causes between January 1996 and December 2010 in northern Ravalli County in the Bitterroot Valley of west-central, Montana, USA. Observations of brachygnathia superior on white-tailed deer increased from none observed on several hundred deer prior to spring of 1995 to >50% of 519 white-tailed deer examined between January 2001 and December 2010. Highest prevalence was 72% on 84 white-tailed deer fawns born 2007-2010. Smaller samples (196 total) of hunter-killed elk (Cervis canadensis), mule deer (O. hemionus), pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana), white-tailed deer and bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) heads from throughout Montana, examined for facial malformations during 2005-10, showed a high prevalence of brachygnathia superior (>40%) and a small number with mandibular brachygnathia (4%). Two small groups of domestic ruminants also had a high prevalence of brachygnathia superior (>50%). Our data indicate that this condition appeared abruptly in multiple species and has greatly exceeded any previously documented prevalence of cranio-maxillary malformations in wild ruminants.

FINAL FDA RULE:  Bottled Water - Allowable Level for Di(2-Ethylhexyl)Phthalate (DEHP)
- FDA has amended its bottled water quality standard regulations by "... establishing an allowable level [of 0.006 mg/L ] for the chemical di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP). As a consequence, bottled water manufacturers are required to monitor their finished bottled water products for DEHP at least once each year under the current good manufacturing practice (CGMP) regulations for bottled water. Bottled water manufacturers are also required to monitor their source water for DEHP as often as necessary, but at least once every year unless they meet the criteria for source water monitoring exemptions under the CGMP regulations. This final rule will ensure that FDA's standards for the minimum quality of bottled water, as affected by DEHP, will be no less protective of the public health than those set by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for public drinking water ..."
Document Title:
The title of the October 19, 2011 FDA Federal Register Final Rule is "Beverages: Bottled Water Quality Standard; Establishing an Allowable Level for di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate"  Effective Date: April 16, 2012
Web site: The October 19, 2011 FDA Federal Register Final Rule is posted at
http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-10-19/html/2011-26707.htm

Breath-Takingly Simple Test for Human Exposure to Potentially Toxic Substances ScienceDaily (Sep. 28, 2011) — The search for a rapid, non-invasive way to determine whether people have been exposed to potentially toxic substances in their workplaces, homes and elsewhere in the environment has led scientists to a technology that literally takes a person's breath away.  Their report identifying exhaled breath as an ideal indicator of such exposure appears in ACS' Environmental Science & Technology.  ScienceDaily. Retrieved October 24, 2011, from http://www.sciencedaily.com­ /releases/2011/09/110928105703.htm

TEDX List of Potential Endocrine Disruptors: 
The TEDX List of Potential Endocrine Disruptors is a database of chemicals with the potential to affect the endocrine system.  Every chemical on the TEDX List has one or more verified citations to  published, accessible, primary scientific research  demonstrating effects on the endocrine system.

Endocrine effects include direct effects on traditional endocrine glands, their hormones and receptors (such as estrogens, anti-androgens, and thyroid hormones), as well as signaling cascades that affect many of the body’s systems, including reproductive function and fetal development, the nervous system and behavior, the immune and metabolic systems, the liver, bones and many other organs, glands and tissues.

To date (July 18, 2011) there are approximately 850 endocrine disruptors on the TEDX List, which is available as a Microsoft Excel file for easy searching and sorting. Each row in the file shows the following columns: Chemical Name, Alternative Names, CAS Number, TEDX Number, Year (of cited publication), and Citation. Chemicals with multiple citations have multiple rows in the database; rows are shaded for ease of reading.  http://www.endocrinedisruption.org/home.php

2,500 Products Now Approved under EPA Safer Product Labeling Program.  The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is announcing that more than 2,500 products are now authorized by the agency under its Design for the Environment (DfE)Safer Product Labeling Program to carry the DfE label. DfE-labeled products do not contain known chemicals of potential concern, like carcinogens, reproductive or developmental toxicants. Even minor product components, like dyes and fragrances, are screened for safety. EPA is also announcing that it soon will require manufacturers with products that bear the DfE logo to disclose their ingredients to consumers. Before allowing the DfE logo to be used on a product label, EPA conducts a scientific evaluation to ensure that candidate products are formulated from the safest possible ingredients. The DfE label means that EPA has screened each ingredient for potential human health and environmental effects and that the product contains only ingredients that, in EPA’s scientific opinion, pose the least concern among chemicals in their class. Products that carry the DfE label include all-purpose cleaners, laundry and dishwasher detergents, drain line maintainers, car and boat care and other products. Using DfE- labeled products significantly reduces exposures to chemicals that may be of concern to people’s or environmental health.  More information on the DfE Safer Product Labeling Program and Standard for Safer Products: http://epa.gov/dfe
 
Report Proposes Strategies for Reducing Pollutants in Water.  June 2011.  Researchers have known for more than 40 years that pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) such as hormones, prescription drugs and insecticides, can end up in drinking water systems. A report prepared by the Texas Tech University’s Center for Water & Law Policy leaves aside the question of what, if anything, should be done, and asks instead, what can be done? The report, “Alternative Strategies for Managing Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Products in Water Resources,” is the third phase of a long-term project funded by a $450,000 grant from the Environmental Protection Agency. The report acknowledges the difficulty of addressing PPCPs through the legal system and legislation/ government action. Authors Gabriel Eckstein and George William Sherk propose that a more effective way of responding to PPCPs in drinking water supplies may be to focus on alternative strategies that stress removing PPCPs from the source. For example, pharmaceutical and personal care product manufacturers could create take-back programs, potentially reducing the amount of PPCPs that are thrown away.  In addition to the alternative strategies, the report also includes a summary of current research, a review of short- and long-term impacts on human and environmental health, and current legal and governmental mechanisms by which water supplies are protected. Furthermore, the research discusses a case study – phase two of the EPA funded project – in which studies were conducted in West Texas on the presence of PPCPs in treated water returned to the environment.  http://today.ttu.edu/2011/06/report-proposes-strategies-for-reducing-pollutants-in-water/

Scientists are reporting detection of potentially toxic flame retardants in car seats, bassinet mattresses, nursing pillows, high chairs, strollers, and other products that contain polyurethane foam and are designed for newborns, infants and toddlers.  In a study in ACS' journal Environmental Science & Technology, they describe hints that one flame retardant, banned years ago in some areas, actually remains in use. "To the authors knowledge, this is the first study to report on flame retardants in baby products," the report states.  Heather M. Stapleton and colleagues point out that health concerns led to a phase-out in use of penta brominated diphenyl ethers (pentaBDE), once the most popular flame retardant, prior to 2004. Flame retardants are added during manufacture to reduce the risk of polyurethane foam catching fire and to slow down burning if it does. Seeking to meet government flammability standards, manufacturers then turned to other flame retardants, which in many cases, have less health data available. The situation left gaps in knowledge about exactly which flame retardants were being used in polyurethane foam products, and at what concentrations. Stapleton's group set out to fill those gaps.  They detected potentially toxic flame retardants in 80 percent of the polyurethane foam samples collected from 101 common baby products. Among them were compounds associated with pentaBDE, suggesting that the substance -- banned in 172 countries and 12 U.S. states -- still remains in use, as well as two potential carcinogens, TCEP and TDCPP. "Future studies are therefore warranted to specifically measure infants exposure to these flame retardants from intimate contact with these products, and to determine if there are any associated health concerns," the report states.  http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/05/110518075031.htm?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+sciencedaily+%28ScienceDaily%3A+Latest+Science+News%29   American Chemical Society. "Potentially toxic flame retardants detected in baby products." ScienceDaily, 18 May 2011. Web. 19 May 2011.

Many agricultural pesticides – including some previously untested and commonly found in food – disrupt male hormones, according to new tests conducted by British scientists. The researchers strongly recommended that all pesticides in use today be screened to check if they block testosterone, which is critical to men’s and boys’ reproductive health. Thirty out of 37 pesticides tested by the University of London altered male hormones, including 16 that had no known hormonal activity until now. Most are fungicides applied to fruit and vegetable crops, including strawberries and lettuce.  More here.

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EPA Provides Public with Easier Access to Chemical Information.  December 22, 2010.  EPA has introduced a new web-based tool that will enable the public to search for and have easy access to health and safety studies on industrial chemicals.  The chemical data access tool allows users to conduct a chemical-specific search for health and safety studies that have been submitted to the agency under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA).  The new tool will for the first time give the public the ability to electronically search EPA’s database of more than 10,000 health and safety documents on a wide range of chemicals that they may come into contact with every day.  Under TSCA, companies are required to submit health and safety studies to the agency when they show there may be a substantial risk, when chemical testing is required, or to facilitate EPA's review of new chemicals.  http://java.epa.gov/oppt_chemical_search/

EPA to Expand Chemicals Testing for Endocrine Disruption. November 16, 2010.  The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has identified a list of 134 chemicals that will be screened for their potential to disrupt the endocrine system.  Endocrine disruptors are chemicals that interact with and possibly disrupt the hormones produced or secreted by the human or animal endocrine system, which regulates growth, metabolism and reproduction. Administrator Lisa P. Jackson has made it a top priority to ensure the safety of chemicals, and this is another step in this process. More information:  http://www.epa.gov/endo

EPA Pharmaceutical Guidance:  August 2010 EPA draft guidance developed for hospitals, medical clinics, doctors' offices, long-term care facilities, and veterinary facilities to provide alternative management methods to flushing/disposing unused pharmaceuticals down the drain. http://water.epa.gov/scitech/wastetech/guide/upload/unuseddraft.pdf

Are Oral Contraceptives a Significant Contributor to the Estrogenicity of Drinking Water?:  Recent observed feminization of aquatic animals has raised concerns about estrogenic compounds in water supplies and the potential for these chemicals to reach drinking water. Public perception frequently attributes this feminization to oral contraceptives (OCs) in wastewater and raises concerns that exposure to OCs in drinking water may contribute to the recent rise in human reproductive problems. This paper reviews the literature regarding various sources of estrogens, in surface, source and drinking water, with an emphasis on the active molecule that comes from OCs. It includes discussion of the various agricultural, industrial, and municipal sources and outlines the contributions of estrogenic chemicals to the estrogenicity of waterways and estimates that the risk of exposure to synthetic estrogens in drinking water on human health is negligible. This paper also provides recommendations for strategies to better understand all the potential sources of estrogenic compounds in the environment and possibilities to reduce the levels of estrogenic chemicals in the water supply.  http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/es1014482

Bipartisan Federal Law Enables Safe Disposal of Medicines:  October 13, 2010 - The Safe and Secure Drug Disposal Act will give communities more options for providing secure take-back programs to prevent drug abuse, reduce the chances of accidental poisonings, and keep pharmaceutical drugs out of the environment.  The Drug Enforcement Administration will begin to promulgate new regulations that will provide residents and long-term care facilities with greater flexibility to dispose of drugs that might include drop-off programs and mail-back options. Until now, opportunities to dispose of unwanted prescription drugs have been limited. Under current law, consumers are prohibited from giving certain unneeded, unused, or expired drugs to anyone besides law enforcement officers.  

Monitoring human exposure to environmental pollutants:  The title of the August 16, 2010 Health Canada Report is "Report on Human Biomonitoring of Environmental Chemicals in Canada".   Report on Human Biomonitoring of Environmental Chemicals in Canada at: http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ewh-semt/pubs/contaminants/chms-ecms/index-eng.php

Dental Amalgam/Categorical Standards:  The Environmental Council of States (ECOS) has sent EPA a letter requesting action by EPA on developing effluent guidelines for dental mercury (amalgam).  See the letter at: http://www.ecos.org/files/4181_file_ECOS_Letter_to_Silva_on_Effluent_Guidelines_Resolution.pdf

Emerging Pollutants of Concern and Treatment:  EPA is releasing the results of an extensive literature review of published studies of the effectiveness of various treatment technologies for contaminants of emerging concern (CECs).  EPA also is releasing a report that discusses some of the results of the literature search, including removals of specific CECs across common wastewater treatment technologies.  In response to emerging concerns about the possible impacts of pharmaceuticals, detergents, hormones, and other chemicals on human health and aquatic organisms, EPA searched over 400 articles that referenced treatment of CECs.  About 100 of those sources contained treatment information which was entered into a searchable database.  EPA compiled and summarized the results reported by researchers in the last five years. The research studies occurred primarily in the U.S., Canada, and in Europe.  The report discusses 16 of the over 200 CECs present in the database, and the average percent removals achieved by full-scale treatment systems that employ six of the more than 20 reported treatment technologies.  http://epa.gov/waterscience/ppcp/studies/results.html

EPA to Take Action on Chemicals Used in Dyes, Flame Retardants, and Industrial Detergents (08/18/2010):   EPA released action plans today to address the potential health risks of benzidine dyes, hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and nonylphenol (NP)/nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEs). The chemicals are widely used in both consumer and industrial applications, including dyes, flame retardants, and industrial laundry detergents. The plans identify a range of actions the agency is considering under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA).

Bisphenol A (BPA) in U.S. Food.  Arnold Schecter, et. al., Environ. Sci. Technol., Article ASAP, November 1, 2010.  http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/es102785d.  Bisphenol A (BPA) is a chemical used for lining metal cans and in polycarbonate plastics, such as baby bottles. In rodents, BPA is associated with early sexual maturation, altered behavior, and effects on prostate and mammary glands. In humans, BPA is associated with cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and male sexual dysfunction in exposed workers. Food is a major exposure source. We know of no studies reporting BPA in U.S. fresh food, canned food, and food in plastic packaging in peer reviewed journals. We measured BPA levels in 105 fresh and canned foods, foods sold in plastic packaging, and in cat and dog foods in cans and plastic packaging. We detected BPA in 63 of 105 samples, including fresh turkey, canned green beans, and canned infant formula. Ninety-three of these samples were triplicates which had similar detected levels. Detected levels ranged from 0.23 to 65.0 ng/g ww and were not associated with type of food or packaging but did vary with pH. BPA levels were higher for foods of pH 5 compared to more acidic and alkaline foods. Detected levels were comparable to those found by others. Further research is indicated to determine BPA levels in U.S. food in larger, representative sampling.

Exposure to Environmental Contaminants in Farmed Atlantic Salmon Fish Oil Leads to Insulin Resistance Syndrome.   The title of the November 19, 2009 EHP article is "Persistent Organic Pollutant Exposure Leads to Insulin Resistance Syndrome".  Author(s): Jérôme Ruzzin, et. al.   Web site:  http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/docs/2009/0901321/abstract.pdf
 
Pharmaceuticals in the environment – January 2009 Workshop Research Findings.  Organization: European Environment Agency (EEA), an agency of the European Union
Web site: The report is at http://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/pharmaceuticals-in-the-environment-result-of-an-eea-workshop/at_download/file

The Air Force Center for Engineering and the Environment (AFCEE) has a web site on emerging containments. http://www.afcee.af.mil/resources/technologytransfer/programsandinitiatives/contaminants/index.asp

Micropollutants Clearing House is an on-line, publically accessible, research resource on the legal, regulatory, institutional, policy, and related scientific aspects of micropollutants in fresh water systems.  http://www.micropollutants.org/

The GeoHealth Newsletter provides information on: New USGS activities related to human health, upcoming meetings related to earth science and public health, and new and upcoming USGS health-related publications. The Newsletter is issued twice a year on this Web site.  Current Issue — Vol. 7, No. 2, Winter 2009/2010

The WACAP (Western Airborne Contaminants Assessment Project) Database, along with associated Users Guide, and Metadata file, is now available on line at:  http://www.nature.nps.gov/air/studies/air_toxics/wacap.cfm

Protecting the Great Lakes from Pharmaceutical Pollution http://www.greatlakes.org/Document.Doc?id=810

Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals in Drinking Water: Risks to Human Health and the Environment Hearings - Subcommittee on Energy and the Environment The Subcommittee on Energy and Environment held a hearing entitled, "Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals in Drinking Water:  Risks to Human Health and the Environment," on Thursday, February 25, 2010, at 9:30 a.m. in room 2123 of the Rayburn House Office Building.  This hearing examined the science and regulation of endocrine disruptors that may be found in sources of drinking water. 

Bisphenol A (BPA) in U.S. Food.  Arnold Schecter, et. al., Environ. Sci. Technol., Article ASAP, November 1, 2010.  http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/es102785d.  Bisphenol A (BPA) is a chemical used for lining metal cans and in polycarbonate plastics, such as baby bottles. In rodents, BPA is associated with early sexual maturation, altered behavior, and effects on prostate and mammary glands. In humans, BPA is associated with cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and male sexual dysfunction in exposed workers. Food is a major exposure source. We know of no studies reporting BPA in U.S. fresh food, canned food, and food in plastic packaging in peer reviewed journals. We measured BPA levels in 105 fresh and canned foods, foods sold in plastic packaging, and in cat and dog foods in cans and plastic packaging. We detected BPA in 63 of 105 samples, including fresh turkey, canned green beans, and canned infant formula. Ninety-three of these samples were triplicates which had similar detected levels. Detected levels ranged from 0.23 to 65.0 ng/g ww and were not associated with type of food or packaging but did vary with pH. BPA levels were higher for foods of pH 5 compared to more acidic and alkaline foods. Detected levels were comparable to those found by others. Further research is indicated to determine BPA levels in U.S. food in larger, representative sampling.

Exposure to Environmental Contaminants in Farmed Atlantic Salmon Fish Oil Leads to Insulin Resistance Syndrome
Document Title: The title of the November 19, 2009 EHP article is "Persistent Organic Pollutant Exposure Leads to Insulin Resistance Syndrome"
Author(s): Jérôme Ruzzin, et. al.  
Web site:  http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/docs/2009/0901321/abstract.pdf
 
Pharmaceuticals in the environment – January 2009 Workshop Research Findings.
Organization: European Environment Agency (EEA), an agency of the European Union
Web site: The report is at http://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/pharmaceuticals-in-the-environment-result-of-an-eea-workshop/at_download/file
 

General Information on Emerging Contaminants

USGS Toxic Substances Hydrology Program
http://toxics.usgs.gov/regional/emc/index.html

Water Environment Research Foundation information on Endocrine Disrupting Compounds
http://www.werf.org/

Water Research Foundation (formerly AwwaRF)
http://www.waterresearchfoundation.org/research/TopicsAndProjects/topicSnapshot.aspx?topic=EDCS

USEPA Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) as Environmental Pollutants
http://www.epa.gov/ppcp/

Center for Bioenvironmental Research at Tulane and Xavier University
e.hormone - your gateway to the environment and hormones
http://e.hormone.tulane.edu/ehormone.html

Presentations from the Emerging Contaminants Workshop sponsored by the Interstate Commission on the Potomac River Basin in Sept. 2005
http://www.potomacriver.org/water_quality/safewater/DWSP/ECs/ECWorkshop_2005.htm

USEPA webpage on Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Fluorinated Telomers
http://www.epa.gov/oppt/pfoa/index.htm

US Department of Defense - Materials of Emerging Regulatory Interest Team (MERIT) consists of individuals throughout the Department of Defense with a common interest in emerging contaminants
https://www.denix.osd.mil/portal/page/portal/denix/environment/MERIT

US Department of Defense - Emerging Contaminants Action List contains those materials that have been assessed and judged to have a significant potential impact on people or the DoD mission
https://www.denix.osd.mil/portal/page/portal/denix/environment/MERIT/EC/ECAL

EC-related non-Government organization and studies websites:

Boulder Area Sustainability Information Network - Hormonally Active Agents in Boulder Creek
http://bcn.boulder.co.us/basin/topical/haa.html

Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC)
http://www.setac.org/

The Endocrine Society
http://www.endo-society.org/

Online resource for the drinking water quality community
http://safedrinkingwater.com/

Environmental Health News
http://www.environmentalhealthnews.org/

Our Stolen Future
http://www.ourstolenfuture.org/

National Tap Water Quality Database (by the Environmental Working Group)
http://www.ewg.org/tapwater/findings.php

Results of study on toxics in automobiles (by the Ecology Center)
http://www.ecocenter.org/cleancar/chemicals.php

Pollution in People study by the Toxic-Free Legacy Coalition (May 2006)
http://www.pollutioninpeople.org/

Emerging Contaminants - Linking Science to Effective Action (Institute for Environmental Solutions)
http://www.i4es.org/emerging.html

Pharmacy and Health Industry Related Info:

The Internet Drug Index
http://www.rxlist.com/

Hospitals for a healthy environment (from Healthcare Environmental Resource Center)
http://h2e-online.org/hazmat/pharma.html

Pharmecology Associates, LLC - company dedicated to establishing compliant and cost-effective procedures to manage pharmaceutical waste
http://www.pharmecology.com/pedd/jsp/index.jsp

Activities related to ECs in Europe:

EUROPA website on endocrine disrupters
http://ec.europa.eu/environment/endocrine/index_en.htm

Research into endocrine disruption in Europe
http://ec.europa.eu/research/endocrine/index_en.html

Information on the European Union’s Chemical Policy - Registration, Evaluation and Authorization of Chemicals (REACH)
http://www.euractiv.com/en/environment/chemicals-policy-review-reach/article-117452

Reports and research articles

Barber, L.B., Murphy, S.P., Verplanck, P.L., Sandstrom, M.W., Taylor, H.E., and Furlong, E.T., 2006a. Chemical loading into surface water along a hydrological, biogeochemical, and land use gradient: A Holistic watershed approach: Environmental Science and Technology, 40, p. 475-486.

Barber, L.B., Keefe, S.H., Antweiler, R.C., Taylor, H.E., and Wass, R.D., 2006b. Accumulation of contaminants in fish from wastewater treatment wetlands: Environmental Science and Technology, 40(2), p. 603-611.

Barnes, K.K., Kolpin, D.W., Furlong, E.T., Zaugg, S.D., Meyer, M.T., and Barber, L.B., 2008. A national reconnaissance of pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater contaminants in the United States—1) Groundwater. Science of the total Environment 402, 192-200.

Catriona, P., Rhind, S.M., Kyle, C.E., Scott H., McKinnell C., and Sharpe, R.M., 2005, Cellular and hormonal disruption of fetal testis development in sheep reared on pasture treated with sewage sludge: Environmental Health Perspectives, 113(11), p. 1580-1587.

Drewes, J. E. & Shore, L. S. 2001. Concerns about pharmaceuticals in water reuse, groundwater recharge, and animal waste. In: Ch. Daughton and T. L. Jones-Lepp (Eds.) American Chemical Society Symposium Series 791 “Pharmaceuticals and personal care products in the environment" No. 791, Washington, D.C., 206-228.

Drewes, J. E., Heberer, T., Rauch, T. & Reddersen, K. 2003. Fate of pharmaceuticals during groundwater recharge. J. Ground Water Monitoring and Remediation 23, 3, 64-72.

Drewes, J. E., Hemming, J., Ladenburger, S., Schauer, J. & Sonzogni, W. 2005. An assessment of endocrine disrupting activity changes in water reclamation systems through the use of bioassays and chemical measurements. Water Environment Research 77, 1, 12-23.

Drewes, J. E., Hemming, J., Schauer, J., and Sonzogni, W. 2006. Removal of Endocrine Disrputing Compounds in Water Reclamation Processes. Final Report 01-HHE-20T. Water Environment Research Foundation (WERF). Alexandria, Virginia.

Focazio, M.J., Kolpin, D.W., Barnes, K.K., Furlong, E.T., Meyer, M.T., Zaugg, S.D., Barber, L.B., and Thurman, M.E., 2008. A national reconnaissance of pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater contaminants in the United States—II) Untreated drinking water sources. Science of the total Environment 402, 201-216.

Global Water Research Coalition, 2004, Pharmaceuticals and personal care products in the water cycle: Global Water Research Coalition, London, UK, 35 p.

Jobling, S., Nolan, M., Tyler, C.R., Brighty, G., and Sumpter, J.P. 1998 Widespread sexual disruption in wild fish. Environ. Sci. Technol. 32, 2498-2506.

Kavanagh, R.J., Balxh, G.C., Kiparissis, Y., Niimi, A.J., Sherry, J., Tinson, C., and Metcalfe, C.D. 2004. Endocrine disruption and altered gonadal development in white perch (Morone Americana) from the lower Great Lakes region. Environ. Health Perspect. 112, 898-902.

Kinney, C.A., Furlong, E.T., Werner, S.L., and Cahill, J.D., 2006, Presence and distribution of wastewater-derived pharmaceuticals in soil irrigated with reclaimed water: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 25(2), p. 317-326.

Kolpin, D.W., Furlong, E.T., Meyer, M.T., Thurman, E.M., Zaugg, S.D., Barber, L.B., and Buxton, H.T., 2002. Pharmaceuticals, hormones, and other organic wastewater contaminants in U.S. streams, 1999-2000—A national reconnaissance. Environmental Science & Technology, 36(6): 1202-1211.

Lee, K.E., Barber, L.B., Furlong, E.T., Cahill, J.D., Kolpin, D.W., Meyer, M.T., and Zaugg, S.D., 2004. Presence and distribution of organic wastewater compounds in wastewater, surface, ground, and drinking waters, Minnesota, 2000-2002: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigation Report 2004-5138, 47 p.

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