Publications and Other Information


Blood and Urine Levels of Environmental Contaminants in the US Population – The HHS CDC has updated its “Fourth National Report on Human Exposure to Environment Chemicals” which now summarizes 153 chemicals measured in a representative sample of the U.S. population – New data include “… updated tables for 119 chemicals in the Fourth Report, 2009 and tables for 34 new chemicals … The following chemicals have results updated for the first time: dialkylphosphate metabolites of organophosphorus insecticides; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; and volatile organic compounds including disinfection by-products …” – Chemicals in the Fourth Report include “… metals such as lead, cadmium, uranium, mercury, and speciated forms of arsenic; environmental phenols such as bisphenol-A (BPA); acrylamide; perfluorinated chemicals; polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs); polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs); volatile organic compounds such as benzene, styrene and methyl tert-butyl ether; pesticides; phthalates; and dioxins, furans and related chemicals …”

Document Title: The title of the September 26 2012 CDC National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH) Division of Laboratory Sciences report is “Fourth National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals; Updated Tables, September 2012”
Organization: Division of Laboratory Sciences of the National Center for Environmental Health of the HHS Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
Source: September 26, 2012 CDC NCEH Division of Laboratory Sciences report
Web site: The September 26, 2012 CDC NCEH Division of Laboratory Sciences report is posted at
* Specifically, the updated tables are posted at

Bacterial response to a shock load of nanosilver in an activated sludge treatment system.  Liang, Zhihua, et. al.  Water Research (44) 5432-5438.  2010.  The growing release of nanosilver into sewage systems has increased the concerns on the potential adverse impacts of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in wastewater treatment plants.  The inhibitory effects of nanosilver on wastewater treatment and the response of activated sludge bacteria to the shock loading of AgNPs were evaluated in a Modified LudzackeEttinger (MLE) activated sludge treatment system. Before shock-loading experiments, batch extant respirometric assays determined that at 1 mg/L of total Ag, nitrification inhibitions by AgNPs (average size ¼ 1e29 nm) and Agþ ions were 41.4% and 13.5%, respectively, indicating that nanosilver was more toxic to nitrifying bacteria in activated sludge than silver ions. After a 12-h period of nanosilver shock loading to reach a final peak silver concentration of 0.75 mg/L in the MLE system, the total silver concentration in the mixed liquor decreased exponentially. A continuous flow-through model predicted that the silver in the activated sludge system would be washed out 25 days after the shock loading.  Meanwhile, a prolonged period of nitrification inhibition (>1 month, the highest degree of inhibition ¼ 46.5%) and increase of ammonia/nitrite concentration in wastewater effluent were observed. However, nanosilver exposure did not affect the growth of heterotrophs responsible for organic matter removal. Microbial community structure analysis indicated that the ammonium-oxidizing bacteria and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria, Nitrospira, had experienced population decrease while Nitrobacter was washed out after the shock loading.

Bisphenol A (BPA) in U.S. Food.  Arnold Schecter, et. al., Environ. Sci. Technol., Article ASAP, November 1, 2010.  Bisphenol A (BPA) is a chemical used for lining metal cans and in polycarbonate plastics, such as baby bottles. In rodents, BPA is associated with early sexual maturation, altered behavior, and effects on prostate and mammary glands. In humans, BPA is associated with cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and male sexual dysfunction in exposed workers. Food is a major exposure source. We know of no studies reporting BPA in U.S. fresh food, canned food, and food in plastic packaging in peer reviewed journals. We measured BPA levels in 105 fresh and canned foods, foods sold in plastic packaging, and in cat and dog foods in cans and plastic packaging. We detected BPA in 63 of 105 samples, including fresh turkey, canned green beans, and canned infant formula. Ninety-three of these samples were triplicates which had similar detected levels. Detected levels ranged from 0.23 to 65.0 ng/g ww and were not associated with type of food or packaging but did vary with pH. BPA levels were higher for foods of pH 5 compared to more acidic and alkaline foods. Detected levels were comparable to those found by others. Further research is indicated to determine BPA levels in U.S. food in larger, representative sampling.

Exposure to Environmental Contaminants in Farmed Atlantic Salmon Fish Oil Leads to Insulin Resistance Syndrome 
Document Title: The title of the November 19, 2009 EHP article is “Persistent Organic Pollutant Exposure Leads to Insulin Resistance Syndrome”
Author(s): Jérôme Ruzzin, et. al.
Web site:

Pharmaceuticals in the environment – January 2009 Workshop Research Findings.
Organization: European Environment Agency (EEA), an agency of the European Union
Web site: The report is at

General Information on Emerging Contaminants

USGS Toxic Substances Hydrology Program

Water Environment Research Foundation information on Endocrine Disrupting Compounds

Water Research Foundation (formerly AwwaRF)

USEPA Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) as Environmental Pollutants

Center for Bioenvironmental Research at Tulane and Xavier University
e.hormone – your gateway to the environment and hormones

Presentations from the Emerging Contaminants Workshop sponsored by the Interstate Commission on the Potomac River Basin in Sept. 2005

USEPA webpage on Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Fluorinated Telomers

US Department of Defense – Materials of Emerging Regulatory Interest Team (MERIT) consists of individuals throughout the Department of Defense with a common interest in emerging contaminants

US Department of Defense – Emerging Contaminants Action List contains those materials that have been assessed and judged to have a significant potential impact on people or the DoD mission

EC-related non-Government organization and studies websites:

Boulder Area Sustainability Information Network – Hormonally Active Agents in Boulder Creek

Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC)

The Endocrine Society

Online resource for the drinking water quality community

Environmental Health News

Our Stolen Future

National Tap Water Quality Database (by the Environmental Working Group)

Results of study on toxics in automobiles (by the Ecology Center)

Pollution in People study by the Toxic-Free Legacy Coalition (May 2006)

Emerging Contaminants – Linking Science to Effective Action (Institute for Environmental Solutions)

Pharmacy and Health Industry Related Info:

The Internet Drug Index

Hospitals for a healthy environment (from Healthcare Environmental Resource Center)

Pharmecology Associates, LLC – company dedicated to establishing compliant and cost-effective procedures to manage pharmaceutical waste

Activities related to ECs in Europe:

EUROPA website on endocrine disrupters

Research into endocrine disruption in Europe

Information on the European Union’s Chemical Policy – Registration, Evaluation and Authorization of Chemicals (REACH)

Reports and Research Articles

Barber, L.B., Murphy, S.P., Verplanck, P.L., Sandstrom, M.W., Taylor, H.E., and Furlong, E.T., 2006a. Chemical loading into surface water along a hydrological, biogeochemical, and land use gradient: A Holistic watershed approach: Environmental Science and Technology, 40, p. 475-486.

Barber, L.B., Keefe, S.H., Antweiler, R.C., Taylor, H.E., and Wass, R.D., 2006b. Accumulation of contaminants in fish from wastewater treatment wetlands: Environmental Science and Technology, 40(2), p. 603-611.

Barnes, K.K., Kolpin, D.W., Furlong, E.T., Zaugg, S.D., Meyer, M.T., and Barber, L.B., 2008. A national reconnaissance of pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater contaminants in the United States—1) Groundwater. Science of the total Environment 402, 192-200.

Catriona, P., Rhind, S.M., Kyle, C.E., Scott H., McKinnell C., and Sharpe, R.M., 2005, Cellular and hormonal disruption of fetal testis development in sheep reared on pasture treated with sewage sludge: Environmental Health Perspectives, 113(11), p. 1580-1587.

Drewes, J. E. & Shore, L. S. 2001. Concerns about pharmaceuticals in water reuse, groundwater recharge, and animal waste. In: Ch. Daughton and T. L. Jones-Lepp (Eds.) American Chemical Society Symposium Series 791 “Pharmaceuticals and personal care products in the environment” No. 791, Washington, D.C., 206-228.

Drewes, J. E., Heberer, T., Rauch, T. & Reddersen, K. 2003. Fate of pharmaceuticals during groundwater recharge. J. Ground Water Monitoring and Remediation 23, 3, 64-72.

Drewes, J. E., Hemming, J., Ladenburger, S., Schauer, J. & Sonzogni, W. 2005. An assessment of endocrine disrupting activity changes in water reclamation systems through the use of bioassays and chemical measurements. Water Environment Research 77, 1, 12-23.

Drewes, J. E., Hemming, J., Schauer, J., and Sonzogni, W. 2006. Removal of Endocrine Disrputing Compounds in Water Reclamation Processes. Final Report 01-HHE-20T. Water Environment Research Foundation (WERF). Alexandria, Virginia.

Focazio, M.J., Kolpin, D.W., Barnes, K.K., Furlong, E.T., Meyer, M.T., Zaugg, S.D., Barber, L.B., and Thurman, M.E., 2008. A national reconnaissance of pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater contaminants in the United States—II) Untreated drinking water sources. Science of the total Environment 402, 201-216.

Global Water Research Coalition, 2004, Pharmaceuticals and personal care products in the water cycle: Global Water Research Coalition, London, UK, 35 p.

Jobling, S., Nolan, M., Tyler, C.R., Brighty, G., and Sumpter, J.P. 1998 Widespread sexual disruption in wild fish. Environ. Sci. Technol. 32, 2498-2506.

Kavanagh, R.J., Balxh, G.C., Kiparissis, Y., Niimi, A.J., Sherry, J., Tinson, C., and Metcalfe, C.D. 2004. Endocrine disruption and altered gonadal development in white perch (Morone Americana) from the lower Great Lakes region. Environ. Health Perspect. 112, 898-902.

Kinney, C.A., Furlong, E.T., Werner, S.L., and Cahill, J.D., 2006, Presence and distribution of wastewater-derived pharmaceuticals in soil irrigated with reclaimed water: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 25(2), p. 317-326.

Kolpin, D.W., Furlong, E.T., Meyer, M.T., Thurman, E.M., Zaugg, S.D., Barber, L.B., and Buxton, H.T., 2002. Pharmaceuticals, hormones, and other organic wastewater contaminants in U.S. streams, 1999-2000—A national reconnaissance. Environmental Science & Technology, 36(6): 1202-1211.

Lee, K.E., Barber, L.B., Furlong, E.T., Cahill, J.D., Kolpin, D.W., Meyer, M.T., and Zaugg, S.D., 2004. Presence and distribution of organic wastewater compounds in wastewater, surface, ground, and drinking waters, Minnesota, 2000-2002: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigation Report 2004-5138, 47 p.

Lorraine, G.A. and Pettigrove, M.E., 2006. Seasonal variations in concentrations of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in drinking water and reclaimed wastewater in Southern California. Environmental Science and Technology 40: 687-695.

Mannina, G. L. 2006. Medicines in the Environment: Legal and Regulatory Storms Ahead? Legal Backgrounder 21, 11, 1-4. Washington Legal Foundation, Washington, D.C.

Mansell, J. and Drewes, J. E. (2004). Fate of steroidal hormones during soil-aquifer treatment (SAT). J. Ground Water Monitoring and Remediation. 24, 2, 94-101.

Pomati, F., Castiglioni, S., Zuccato E., Fanelli R., Vigetti D., Rossetti C., and Calamri D., 2006, Effects of a complex mixture of therapeutic drugs at environmental levels on human embryonic cells: Environmental Science and Technology, 40(7), p. 2442-2447.

Silva, E., Rajapakse N., and Kortenkamp, A., 2002, Something from “nothing” – eight weak estrogenic chemicals combined at concentrations below NOECs produce significant mixture effects: Environmental Science and Technology, 36(8), p. 1751-1756.

Sprague, L.A., and Battaglin, W.A., 2005. Wastewater chemicals in Colorado’s streams and ground water. U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2004-3127, 4 p.

Ternes, T.A., 1998. Occurrence of drugs in German sewage treatment plants and rivers. Water Resources Research, 32(11), p. 1245-1260.

Vajda, A.M., Barber, L.B., Gray, J.L., Lopez, E.M., Woodling, J.D., and Norris, D.O., 2008. Reproductive disruption in fish downstream from an estrogenic wastewater effluent. Environmental Science and Technology 42(9): 3407-3414.

Westerhoff, P., Yoon, Y., Snyder, S., and Wert, E. (2005). Fate of endocrine-disruptor, pharmaceutical, and personal care product chemicals during simulated drinking water treatment processes. Environmental Science and Technology 39, 17, 6649-63

Yang, S., and Carlson, K., 2003. Evolution of antibiotic occurrence in a river through pristine, urban, and agricultural landscapes: Water Research, 37(19), p. 4645-4656.

Younos, Tamim, 2005. Emerging threats to drinking water quality. Renewable Resources Journal, 23(2), p. 6-12.